There’s a lot of discussion on the internet about A=432 Hz versus A=440 Hz – and, in my opinion, rightly so – because 440 Hz is an aberrant frequency with no grounding in nature. Whereas A = 432 Hz does show up as the Major 3rd harmonic of the Fifth (F) of our “magic frequency” of B-flat = 460.8 Hz (which we documented on the home page).

However, this argument also highlights another problem: the notion that the reference pitch – the foundational frequency of our harmonic series – should be an A.

As we’ve discussed, ancient instruments, and even today’s modern brass instruments, use F and B-flat as their reference pitch.

So, let’s see what happens when we generate the harmonic series using A=432 Hz as our foundation. Starting with A = 432 Hz, we generate the following harmonic frequencies by multiplying by 3, 5, 7, 9 – respectively:

So far, only G does *not* give us the frequency we received from the B-flat harmonic series as documented on the home-page. However, it’s worth noting that the notes we *do* match on (E, C-sharp and B) are all *en-harmonic* to the harmonic-series emanating from our B-flat “magic” frequency:

**E**is a tri-tone of B-flat**C-sharp**is a*minor*3rd, which contradicts the natural*major*3rd harmonic of D**B**is a flattened 9th harmonic in relation to B-flat – which is highly dissonant to our “still point” frequency of B-flat, as well as being a dissonant tri-tone of F (our fifth).

This difference between the harmonic series generated from A=432 Hz versus B-flat=460.8 Hz could be ignored and shrugged off as a tale of he-said/she-said were it not for the empirical evidence I have seen with my tone generator where a perceived beating frequency came to a stop at 7.2 Hz – and how this same frequency seems to appear as the foundation of ancient musical instruments, cymatics and number theory. This “stop beating” phenomena does not occur at the relative sub-audio frequency for A – by the way.

So far, with the harmonic series we have generated from A = 432 Hz, we have only been able to produce frequencies that are in dis-harmony with the harmonic series of our magic note of B-flat = 460.8 Hz.

Let’s move on to the second generation of harmonics from A, starting with its third harmonic, a C-sharp:

As indicated in red, only B matches the frequencies generated from the harmonic series of B-flat. Even F – which should be an octave of our other magic frequencies of 5.4 and 10.8 Hz has been dis-figured from **345.6** (where it should be, and to which the ancient Chinese bells and cymatics were centered) to **337.5** Hz.

Things don’t improve when we generate the harmonics from the next fifth, G-sharp – and now even our B-flat has been mutilated from **230.4** Hz to **227.8** Hz:

Here’s a summary of all the notes generated harmonically from A = 432 Hz versus B-flat = 460.8 Hz. Besides the notes B, C-sharp and E (all of them en-harmonic with B-flat), every other frequency has been dis-figured slightly:

There’s no sleight of hand going on here. I’m multiplying the base frequency by the whole numbers 3, 5, 7, 9 each time. But, even though we’re using the correct *frequency* for A, at 432 Hz – we cannot treat it as the fundamental of the harmonic series. It is in fact the major 7th of B-flat – or the major third of F – a pretty tenuous harmonic – and that’s why using it as the foundation for a harmonic series seems to take us further from the sacred geometry we’re hoping to find. In fact, the harmonic series based on A produces a series of frequencies which are aberrant to the harmonic series we generated from our magic frequencies for B-flat and F.

Even though A=432 Hz is part of the harmonic series of B-flat and F – it’s not possible to go the *other way* and generate the correct harmonic frequencies for B-flat and F *from* an A.

This is further evidence that A should *not* be the reference pitch – just as we saw that the ancient Egyptian flutes didn’t even include the note A in their range.

Please read the home-page for information on how to *correctly* assemble a harmonic series that resonates with sacred geometry.